Home to the Warm Springs, Wasco and Paiute Tribes, the Warm Springs Indian Reservation encompasses more than 644,000 acres. The treaty, signed by the Tribes in 1855 and pre-dating the state of Oregon, created a sovereign nation stretching from the crest of the Cascades to the Deschutes River. Tribal government provides a variety of community services, including education, healthcare, public safety, business development, utilities, resource management and recreation. Indian Head Casino, hydropower, ranching and tourism help drive the tribal economy.